Some pathogens may routinely cause lung abscesses/cavities. Lung abscesses are often polymicrobial and involve oral flora.
- S. aureus, including MRSA and MSSA
- Anaerobes: among the most common cause, putrid sputum is diagnostic of this class of pathogens
- Aerobic and microaerophilic streptococci, including S. anginosusgroup and Group A streptococci.
- Gram-negative bacteria, especially in Taiwan, an unexplained strong association with Klebsiella pneumoniae
- Group A streptococci
- H. influenzae (type b)
- Rhodococcus equi
- Mycobacteria: M. tuberculosis, MAI, M. kansasii, M. abscessus
- Also, almost any non-tubercular mycobacteria may produce an abscess/cavity.
- Fungi: Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Fusarium, Mucor, Rhizopus
- Parasitic: usually more cystic
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