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- Frequently polymicrobial, usually gastrointestinal flora.
- E. coli
- Klebsiella species
- Enterobacter species
- Enterococcus (often of unclear relevance)
- Anaerobes (often of unclear relevance)
- Pathogenic role of enterococci and anaerobes not well defined and empirical coverage for these organisms is not usually required.
- Resistant pathogens may be encountered in patients with health care-associated infections and empirical coverage should be adjusted accordingly.