- Heart failure (HF) definition: the heart, when functioning at a normal filling pressure, is unable to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body; this leads to maladaptive responses including volume overload (congestion) and ventricular remodeling, shortness of breath and fatigue, and an increased risk of sudden death; these signs and symptoms comprise the syndrome of heart failure.
- Congestive heart failure ("CHF") is a less-preferred term for HF, in which symptoms and signs of congestion predominate. Most patients with HF do not have clinical signs of congestion (although BNP/ProBNP levels may be elevated, see below) (page 25).
- Systolic HF: also called heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), when ejection fraction (EF) < 45%
- Diastolic HF: also called HF with preserved EF (HFpEF), when HF occurs with EF ≥ 45%
- Chronic HF: usually treated as an outpatient
- Acute decompensated HF: a medical emergency usually requiring hospitalization.
- Advanced HF: when symptoms that limit normal daily activities persist despite appropriate treatment.
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