- Worldwide helminthic infection of humans, agent nematodes: Toxocara canis (dog roundworm) and less frequently Toxocara cati (cat roundworm).
- Humans infected, accidental hosts by ingesting eggs from contaminated soil [life cycle Fig. 1]. Usually overcrowded, poor living conditions with dogs or cats.
- Ingested eggs evolve to larval forms penetrating intestinal mucosa with subsequent spread to a variety of body organs (visceral larval migrans, VLM and/or eyes, ocular larval migrans, OLM).
- Human infection does not yield egg production, hence inspection of stool O&P pointless.
- Baylisascaris procyonis (raccoon roundworm, worldwide including U.S.) has been reported to also cause VLM (mainly CNS forms, eosinophilic meningoencephalitis) and OLM.
- Note: cutaneous larval migrans (CLM) caused by a number of nematodes, most commonly hookworm (Ancylostoma braziliense)
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