- Parasomnias are defined as disorders that involve undesirable motor, verbal, or experiential phenomena that occur during sleep or with sleep onset/arousals.
- Parasomnias occur due to abnormal transitions from non-rapid eye movement (NREM), rapid eye movement (REM), and wakefulness.
- Often with periods of dissociation or overlap among these
- Parasomnias are divided into NREM sleep disorders, REM sleep disorders, and "other parasomnias".
- NREM sleep disorders include: conusional arousals, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors
- REM sleep disorders include: nightmare disorder, REM sleep behavior disorder, and isolated sleep paralysis.
- Other parasomnias include: exploding head syndrome, sleep enuresis, sleep-related groaning (catathrenia), sleep-related hallucinations, and sleep-related eating syndrome.
- Parasomnias are classified under the Sleep-Wake Disorders section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5)
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Last updated: October 15, 2014
Dougherty, III, John W, and David Neubauer. "Parasomnias." Johns Hopkins Psychiatry Guide, 2014. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Psychiatry_Guide/787087/all/Parasomnias.
Dougherty, III JW, Neubauer D. Parasomnias. Johns Hopkins Psychiatry Guide. 2014. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Psychiatry_Guide/787087/all/Parasomnias. Accessed June 1, 2023.
Dougherty, III, J. W., & Neubauer, D. (2014). Parasomnias. In Johns Hopkins Psychiatry Guide https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Psychiatry_Guide/787087/all/Parasomnias
Dougherty, III JW, Neubauer D. Parasomnias [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins Psychiatry Guide. ; 2014. [cited 2023 June 01]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Psychiatry_Guide/787087/all/Parasomnias.
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