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Khalil G. Ghanem, M.D., Lisa A. Spacek, M.D., Ph.D.
Toxoplasmosis is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide.

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  • Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan
  • Environmental exposure to oocysts (cat feces) or food exposure (undercooked meat containing tissue cysts or contaminated raw shellfish) leads to infection.
  • Infection lifelong; disease most often due to reactivation of latent tissue cysts. No person-to–person transmission.

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Last updated: January 25, 2014


Ghanem, Khalil G, and Lisa A Spacek. "Toxoplasmosis." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2014. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545207/all/Toxoplasmosis.
Ghanem KG, Spacek LA. Toxoplasmosis. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. 2014. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545207/all/Toxoplasmosis. Accessed July 18, 2019.
Ghanem, K. G., & Spacek, L. A. (2014). Toxoplasmosis. In Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545207/all/Toxoplasmosis
Ghanem KG, Spacek LA. Toxoplasmosis [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ; 2014. [cited 2019 July 18]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545207/all/Toxoplasmosis.
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