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- 1-yr incidence ranges from 1.7% with asymptomatic HIV to 3.1% with CD4-define AIDS to 8.7% with AIDS-defining illness.
- Increased risk with decreasing CD4, injection drug use, African-American race, anemia. Other causes include alcohol abuse, sulfonamides, thiazides, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, IV cocaine, and liver cirrhosis.
- Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) a major cause. Production of autoantibodies against certain platelet antigens (PA-IgG). Antibody-coated platelets removed by macrophages in the spleen.
- Increased risk of bleeding with PLT < 10,000-20,000.
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia may be more common in HIV-infected than uninfected.
- Uncommon with current ART (1-3% with plt < 50,000); more common if uncontrolled HIV replication and with viral hepatitis coinfection