- Facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative bacillus
- Genus has 2 species, Salmonella eterica and Salmonella bongori; most of the clinically important sub-species are within Salmonella enterica.
- Non-typhoidal strains: Foodborne acquisition (95% cases: outbreaks linked to multiple vehicles including eggs, poultry, meats, dairy or vegetables) or acquisition as zoonotic pathogen (such as reptiles).
- Infection with "typhoidal strains" (S. typhi [typhoid fever; serogroup D] and S. paratyphi [paratyphoid fever]) implies contact with person who is infected or a chronic carrier, or with contaminated food or water.
- Humans are the only reservoirs for typhoid strains.
- Non-typhoidal strains classified by agglutination reactions to O antigens identifying serogroups A-E; approximately 2,500 serovars/serotypes exist. Most common in US are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteriditis, S. Newport.
- S. enterica or S. choleraesuis sometimes used as single name for clinically familiar serovars (e.g., S. enterica Typhimurium).
- Serotyping usually only performed in reference/state labs
- Diagnosis is via culture (of blood, stool, etc)
- Typhoidal species more difficult to Cx. Increased yield when blood, bone marrow and intestinal secretions Cx’d before or soon after ABx initiated
- Recovery of organism possible from almost any site, but most commonly stool followed by blood
- Oxidase and lactose negative.
- Grows easily under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions on standard media for stool. Fresh stool specimen preferred; rectal swabs inferior. Using a Salmonella-Shigella agar allows for identification of hydrogen sulfide, which is produced by most Salmonellae.
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Last updated: June 26, 2015
Gupta, Amita, and Natasha Chida. "Salmonella Spp." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2015. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545186/all/Salmonella_spp_.
Gupta A, Chida N. Salmonella spp. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. 2015. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545186/all/Salmonella_spp_. Accessed May 30, 2023.
Gupta, A., & Chida, N. (2015). Salmonella spp. In Johns Hopkins HIV Guide https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545186/all/Salmonella_spp_
Gupta A, Chida N. Salmonella Spp [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ; 2015. [cited 2023 May 30]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545186/all/Salmonella_spp_.
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TY - ELEC T1 - Salmonella spp. ID - 545186 A1 - Gupta,Amita,M.D. AU - Chida,Natasha,M.D. Y1 - 2015/06/26/ BT - Johns Hopkins HIV Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545186/all/Salmonella_spp_ DB - Johns Hopkins Guides DP - Unbound Medicine ER -