- Aerobic, motile, oxidase-positive, non-fermenting, Gram-negative bacillus.
- Ubiquitous, isolated from soil, water, plants, and animals, especially at moist sites, such as perineum, axillae, and ears.
- Thrives in moist environments of the hospital and in the community, i.e., respiratory equipment, disinfectants, sinks, hot-tubs, contact lens solution.
- Drug resistance is common and multi-drug resistance (MDR) is increasingly common.
- Mechanisms include permeability changes of the outer membrane, efflux pumps, chromosomal and inducible β-lactamases, and acquired genes and plasmid-mediated ESBLs.
- Carbapenem-resistance mechanisms include:
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