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- Multiple causes, including HIV infection, inflammatory cytokines, drugs (AZT, ganciclovir, foscarnet, amphotericin, flucytosine, sulfonamides, pyrimethamine, pentamidine, interferon-alfa), OIs with bone marrow replacement, chemotherapy for malignancy.
- HIV can cause decreased growth of progenitor cell, CFU-GM; decreased endogenous G-CSF.
- Prevalence ranges from 10% in asymptomatic HIV, 40-50% with AIDS.
- Increased risk of bacterial and fungal infection with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 750, but absolute risk relatively low. Greatest risk for infection and hospitalization with ANC < 500.
- Neutropenia (< 1000) not associated with decreased survival in HIV+ women (possibly in men, but not studied)