- Mycobacteria spp. divided into rapid growers (< 7 days) and slow growers (>7 days) based on time to mature growth on agar plates.
- Rapid growing: M. fortuitum: (3-7 days) and M. chelonae. Slow growing: M. gordonae (7-10 days), M. malmoense, M. marinum (7-10 days), M. ulcerans and M. xenopi (3-8 wks in Cx), M. terrae, M. nonchromogenicum, (also: M. kansasii, M. avium-intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, not covered in this module).
- M. genavense: very slow growing. Alert lab: requires incubation in broth media for ≥8 wks.
- M. haemophilum: "blood-loving," slow growing. Alert lab: requires ferric iron supplementation and temperature 30oC.
- Risk for non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in HIV+ pts directly proportional to CD4 count. Invasive non-TB disease rare with CD4 count >50 (except for M. marinum) and Sx usually chronic (>30 d) prior to Dx. High CD4 and short duration of Sx make NTM unlikely cause of illness; in this setting, positive sputum isolates more likely to be colonizers or contaminants.
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Last updated: October 9, 2022
Hoffmann, Christopher J. "Mycobacterium Spp." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2022. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545139/all/Mycobacterium_spp_.
Hoffmann CJ. Mycobacterium spp. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. 2022. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545139/all/Mycobacterium_spp_. Accessed June 1, 2023.
Hoffmann, C. J. (2022). Mycobacterium spp. In Johns Hopkins HIV Guide https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545139/all/Mycobacterium_spp_
Hoffmann CJ. Mycobacterium Spp [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ; 2022. [cited 2023 June 01]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545139/all/Mycobacterium_spp_.
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