Johns Hopkins HIV GuideDiagnosisOpportunistic InfectionsParasitic

Microsporidiosis

Lisa A. Spacek, M.D., Ph.D.
Microsporidiosis is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide.

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PATHOGENS

  • Microsporidia is phylum of eukaryotes related to fungi. They are obligate intracellular organisms that spread via spores. Microsporidia behave as protozoa; they possess a defining characteristic called a "polar tube" that coils around the sporoplasm inside of the spore and during germination the polar tube everts to bring the sporoplasm into contact with the host cell.[10]
  • Most commonly identified with human disease:
    • Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (syn. Septata intestinalis) are etiology of majority of infections.
    • Encephalitozoon hellem, E. cuniculi
    • Vittaforma corneae 
    • Nosema ocularum 
    • Trachipleistophora hominis, T. anthropothera 
    • Anncaliia algerae,[7] A. connori, A. vesicularum 
    • Pleistophora spp
    • Microsporidium spp
  • Sources of infection and modes of transmission, likely zoonotic with pigs, cattle, donkeys, birds, and mosquitoes as reservoirs, and/or waterborne.[6]
  • Spores are quite resistant to environmental conditions and can persist in environment for years, particularly if protected from desiccation.

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Last updated: April 5, 2018

Citation

TY - ELEC T1 - Microsporidiosis ID - 545132 A1 - Spacek,Lisa,M.D., Ph.D. Y1 - 2018/04/05/ PB - Johns Hopkins HIV Guide UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545132/all/Microsporidiosis ER -