- Protozoan parasite, HIV increases the risk of visceral (hepatosplenic and bone marrow) disease but not cutaneous or mucocutaneous disease.
- Second most common tissue protozoan OI in HIV after Toxoplasma gondii worldwide.
- Transmitted by sand fly vectors [Fig 1]. Also may be acquired through shared needles among IDUs, primarily in endemic urban settings.
- Zoonosis: reservoirs
- Canine: L. infantum, L. chagasi
- Anthroponotic: L. donovani
- Zoonosis: reservoirs
- Visceral leishmaniasis: L. donovani (Asia), L. infantum (southern Europe, Mediterranean), L. chagasi (Brazil).
- Cutaneous leishmaniasis: L. major and L. tropica (Old World), L. mexicana, L. amazonensis, L. peruviana, L. guyanensis (New World), L. (viania) braziliensis (cutaneous and mucocutaneous)
- Amastigote forms are seen within macrophages; flagellated promastigote forms seen in cultures, transmitted from insect vector.
- Leishmania and HIV co-localize in similar cells (macrophages, dendritic cells) resulting in additive immune dysfunction, especially in macrophages leading to increased immune activation.
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Last updated: May 10, 2021
Auwaerter, Paul G. "Leishmania Species." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2021. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545118/all/Leishmania_species.
Auwaerter PG. Leishmania species. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. 2021. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545118/all/Leishmania_species. Accessed June 1, 2023.
Auwaerter, P. G. (2021). Leishmania species. In Johns Hopkins HIV Guide https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545118/all/Leishmania_species
Auwaerter PG. Leishmania Species [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ; 2021. [cited 2023 June 01]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545118/all/Leishmania_species.
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