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- In general population, ethanol use and glucorticoid use account for 90% of cases. Other associated conditions include lupus, sickle cell disease, organ transplantation, antiphospholipid antibodies, trauma, radiation.
- In HIV+ patients, incidence is 100x that of general population. Asymptomatic disease found in 6%.
- Risk factors include low CD4 nadir, prior AIDS-defining illness, dyslipidemia, and traditional risk factors. Majority of patients exposed to glucocorticoids or megestrol.
- Direct role of ART controversial. Pharmacologic inhibition of CYP3A4 may increase exogenous glucocorticoid exposure.
- Exact pathogenesis is uncertain. Above risk factors may predispose to compromised local blood flow.