Johns Hopkins Diabetes GuideComplications and ComorbiditiesNeurology Psychiatry

Neurodegenerative Diseases and Mild Cognitive Impairment

Matthew E. Peters, M.D., Christopher Marano, M.D.
Neurodegenerative Diseases and Mild Cognitive Impairment is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide.

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DEFINITION

  • Neurodegenerative diseases include conditions which primarily affect the neurons in the human brain and are more common in persons with diabetes.
  • Examples of neurodegenerative diseases are: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and PD-related disorders, Fronto-temporal Dementia, Prion disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington’s Disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia, and Spinal muscular atrophy.
  • Dementia is defined as a global cognitive and functional decline in the presence of a clear sensorium.
  • AD is thought to account for at least 50% of dementia cases and will be the focus of the present discussion.
  • There has been a growing recognition of individuals with cognitive impairment at a severity level insufficient for a diagnosis of dementia. Two terms have been used to describe these individuals: Cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

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Last updated: August 21, 2014