Non-nutritive and Nutritive Sweeteners

Christine McKinney, RD, LDN, CDE, Thomas Donner, M.D.
Non-nutritive and Nutritive Sweeteners is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide.

To view the entire topic, please or .

Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

DEFINITION

Nutritive sweeteners

  • Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy.
  • Nutritive sweeteners are often termed sugars, added sugars, or caloric sweeteners.
  • Sugars are found naturally in fruits, dairy products, and some vegetables.
  • Sugars are also added to foods and beverages during processing and by the consumer before consumption.
  • The names of sugar commonly found in food includes: glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, corn-based sweeteners, honey, molasses, agave nectar, and fruit juice concentrates.
  • Sugar alcohols (polyols) contain about half the calories of sugar and are used as lower-calorie sweeteners.
  • The names of sugar alcohols are: erythritol, sorbitol, glycerol (also known as glycerin or glycerine), hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, and xylitol.

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS)

  • Have a higher intensity sweetness per gram than nutritive sweeteners.
  • Only needed in small quantities so they provide very few or no calories.
  • Also referred to as artificial sweeteners, sugar substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, high-intensity sweeteners, or noncaloric sweeteners.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or --

DEFINITION

Nutritive sweeteners

  • Nutritive sweeteners contain carbohydrate and provide energy.
  • Nutritive sweeteners are often termed sugars, added sugars, or caloric sweeteners.
  • Sugars are found naturally in fruits, dairy products, and some vegetables.
  • Sugars are also added to foods and beverages during processing and by the consumer before consumption.
  • The names of sugar commonly found in food includes: glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, corn-based sweeteners, honey, molasses, agave nectar, and fruit juice concentrates.
  • Sugar alcohols (polyols) contain about half the calories of sugar and are used as lower-calorie sweeteners.
  • The names of sugar alcohols are: erythritol, sorbitol, glycerol (also known as glycerin or glycerine), hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, and xylitol.

Nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS)

  • Have a higher intensity sweetness per gram than nutritive sweeteners.
  • Only needed in small quantities so they provide very few or no calories.
  • Also referred to as artificial sweeteners, sugar substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, high-intensity sweeteners, or noncaloric sweeteners.

There's more to see -- the rest of this entry is available only to subscribers.

Last updated: October 9, 2020