Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:
-- The first section of this topic is shown below --
- Estimated that over 1 billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency.
- Frank vitamin D deficiency in children (rickets) or adults (osteomalacia) remains rare in developed countries.
- Studies ongoing to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM); preliminary data suggests prevalence may be as high as 30% in T2DM.
- Vitamin D optimizes intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption to maintain skeletal mineral content.
- Sources of vitamin D include sunlight exposure, dietary intake, dietary supplements.
- Vitamin D derived from sunlight or dietary sources metabolized in the liver to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)
- 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolized by 1-alpha-hydroxylase in kidneys to active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D)
- Vitamin D deficiency in adults can lead to development of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and/or osteomalacia; muscle weakness; and increased risk of fractures and falls.
- Vitamin D may have other roles in human health including modulation of immune function and reduction of inflammation, though studies are ongoing.
- Interaction between vitamin D status and other conditions including cardiovascular health, cancer, pregnancy outcomes amd neuromuscular/neuropsychiatric function is not yet well elucidated.