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- Results from any disruption of blood flow to the brain prolonged enough to cause cell death and manifesting as focal neurological symptoms.
- Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by blood leaking from blood vessels into brain tissue.
- Ischemic strokes are caused by an occlusion of a blood vessel.
- Ischemic strokes further subcategorized by mechanism or etiology of the stroke. Subcategories include: large vessel atherosclerosis, cardio-embolic disease, and small-vessel disease.
- Other causes of strokes include hypercoagulability, dissection, sickle cell disease, as well as some undetermined causes  .