Andrea L.C. Schneider, M.D., Ph.D., Martinson Arnan, M.D., Rebecca Gottesman, M.D., Ph.D.


  • Strokes results from any disruption of blood flow to the brain prolonged enough to cause cell death and manifesting as focal neurological symptoms.
  • Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by blood leaking from blood vessels into brain tissue.
  • Ischemic strokes are caused by an occlusion of a blood vessel. Ischemic strokes are further subcategorized by mechanism or etiology of the stroke.
    • Subcategories include: large-vessel atherosclerosis, cardio-embolic disease, and small-vessel disease.
  • Other causes of strokes include hypercoagulability, dissection, sickle cell disease, among others. Approximately 25% are cryptogenic [41] .

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Last updated: August 7, 2022