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Sachin Kalyani, M.D.
Retinopathy is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide.

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  • Retinal vascular complications of diabetes mellitus are classified into nonproliferative and proliferative forms.
  • Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR): describes the earliest retinal changes of diabetic retinopathy, resulting from damage to the small blood vessels in the retina.
  • Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR): describes a later stage of retinopathy, with new growth of abnormal blood vessels on the surface of the retina.

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Last updated: July 31, 2016


Kalyani, Sachin. "Retinopathy." Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide, 2016. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547129/all/Retinopathy.
Kalyani S. Retinopathy. Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. 2016. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547129/all/Retinopathy. Accessed August 21, 2019.
Kalyani, S. (2016). Retinopathy. In Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547129/all/Retinopathy
Kalyani S. Retinopathy [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. ; 2016. [cited 2019 August 21]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547129/all/Retinopathy.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
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