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Pregnancy and Diabetes

Janice L. Henderson, M.D., Wendy Bennett, M.D., M.P.H., Wanda Nicholson, M.D.
Pregnancy and Diabetes is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide.

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  • Diabetic pregnancy refers to pregnancies complicated by pregestational diabetes (diagnosed before pregnancy) and gestational diabetes (diagnosed after conception).
  • Type 1 diabetes is due to lack of insulin production by the pancreas, while type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance. Several hormones produced by the placenta lead to increasing insulin resistance as pregnancy progresses.
  • GDMA1 refers to gestational diabetes controlled by diet and exercise, GDMA2 refers to gestational diabetes requiring hypoglycemic agents.
  • Due to the increasing prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in nonpregnant women of childbearing age, diagnosis of diabetes in early pregnancy is often referred to as "overt" or "diabetes mellitus in pregnancy" or "probable preexisting diabetes", while the term gestational diabetes is best used to describe diabetes diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy.

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Last updated: February 3, 2019


Henderson, Janice L, et al. "Pregnancy and Diabetes." Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide, 2019. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547126/all/Pregnancy_and_Diabetes.
Henderson JL, Bennett W, Nicholson W. Pregnancy and Diabetes. Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. 2019. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547126/all/Pregnancy_and_Diabetes. Accessed June 18, 2019.
Henderson, J. L., Bennett, W., & Nicholson, W. (2019). Pregnancy and Diabetes. In Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547126/all/Pregnancy_and_Diabetes
Henderson JL, Bennett W, Nicholson W. Pregnancy and Diabetes [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. ; 2019. [cited 2019 June 18]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547126/all/Pregnancy_and_Diabetes.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Pregnancy and Diabetes ID - 547126 A1 - Henderson,Janice,M.D. AU - Bennett,Wendy,M.D., M.P.H. AU - Nicholson,Wanda,M.D. Y1 - 2019/02/03/ BT - Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547126/all/Pregnancy_and_Diabetes DB - Johns Hopkins Guide DP - Unbound Medicine ER -