Physical Activity and Exercise

Hasan Husni, M.D., Mariana Lazo, M.D., Rita Rastogi Kalyani, M.D., M.H.S.
Physical Activity and Exercise is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide.

To view the entire topic, please or .

Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

DEFINITION

  • Physical activity: bodily movements produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that require energy expenditure beyond resting energy expenditure
  • Exercise: planned, structured, and repetitive physical activity performed to improve or to maintain physical fitness, physical performance, or health
  • Physical fitness: includes cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and flexibility
  • Intensity of exercise: refers to the level of effort or physiological demand required to perform the activity
  • Metabolic equivalent (MET): unit to describe the energy expended during physical activity. It indexes the intensity of exercise. E.g. sitting at rest (1.0 MET), brisk walking 2.5– 4 mph or water aerobics (3.0- 5.9 MET), jogging/running >4 mph or bicycling >10mph (≥6 MET). Often expressed as MET per minute or MET per hour
  • Maximum heart rate = 220 - age, preferably determined by graded exercise testing (GXT)
  • Classification of physical intensity: light (35-49% of maximum heart rate or 1.1 to 2.9 METs); moderate (50-69% of maximum heart rate or 3.0 to 5.9 METs); vigorous or high (70 - 85% of maximum heart rate or ≥6 METs).
  • Classification of physical activity: Inactive or sedentary (waking behaviors/basic daily activity with low energy expenditure), insufficiently active (less than 150 min moderate-intensity or 75 min vigorous-intensity per week), active (150 – 300 min moderate-intensity physical activity per week), highly active (> 300 min moderate-intensity physical activity per week)
  • Typically, a person doing moderate-intensity activity can speak, but cannot sing during the activity, and a person doing vigorous-intensity activity cannot say more than a few words without pausing for a breath.
  • Aerobic exercise: repeated and continuous movement of the body’s large muscle groups for a sustained period of time (e.g. walking, bicycling, jogging, and swimming). Increases cardiorespiratory fitness. Also called endurance activity or cardio activity.
  • Resistance exercise: activities that use muscular strength to move a weight or work against a resistive load (e.g. weight lifting, push-ups, use of elastic bands). Increases muscular mass, strength and bone mineral density.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or --

DEFINITION

  • Physical activity: bodily movements produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that require energy expenditure beyond resting energy expenditure
  • Exercise: planned, structured, and repetitive physical activity performed to improve or to maintain physical fitness, physical performance, or health
  • Physical fitness: includes cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness, and flexibility
  • Intensity of exercise: refers to the level of effort or physiological demand required to perform the activity
  • Metabolic equivalent (MET): unit to describe the energy expended during physical activity. It indexes the intensity of exercise. E.g. sitting at rest (1.0 MET), brisk walking 2.5– 4 mph or water aerobics (3.0- 5.9 MET), jogging/running >4 mph or bicycling >10mph (≥6 MET). Often expressed as MET per minute or MET per hour
  • Maximum heart rate = 220 - age, preferably determined by graded exercise testing (GXT)
  • Classification of physical intensity: light (35-49% of maximum heart rate or 1.1 to 2.9 METs); moderate (50-69% of maximum heart rate or 3.0 to 5.9 METs); vigorous or high (70 - 85% of maximum heart rate or ≥6 METs).
  • Classification of physical activity: Inactive or sedentary (waking behaviors/basic daily activity with low energy expenditure), insufficiently active (less than 150 min moderate-intensity or 75 min vigorous-intensity per week), active (150 – 300 min moderate-intensity physical activity per week), highly active (> 300 min moderate-intensity physical activity per week)
  • Typically, a person doing moderate-intensity activity can speak, but cannot sing during the activity, and a person doing vigorous-intensity activity cannot say more than a few words without pausing for a breath.
  • Aerobic exercise: repeated and continuous movement of the body’s large muscle groups for a sustained period of time (e.g. walking, bicycling, jogging, and swimming). Increases cardiorespiratory fitness. Also called endurance activity or cardio activity.
  • Resistance exercise: activities that use muscular strength to move a weight or work against a resistive load (e.g. weight lifting, push-ups, use of elastic bands). Increases muscular mass, strength and bone mineral density.

There's more to see -- the rest of this entry is available only to subscribers.

Last updated: June 7, 2021