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Peripheral Vascular Disease

Sheldon Gottlieb, M.D.
Peripheral Vascular Disease is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide.

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  • Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) includes disorders of the blood vessels (arteries and veins) outside the heart and brain. Persons with diabetes are especially at risk for ischemia in arteries of the legs and feet, termed "lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD)".
  • Claudication is defined as limb pain with activity. It is due to muscle ischemia caused by arterial insufficiency.
  • Critical Leg Ischemia (CLI) is defined as rest pain, ulcerations, or gangrene, with expectation of threatened limb loss within 6 months.
  • "Diabetic Foot Syndrome" includes the combined effect of vascular and neuropathic (foot ulcer) injuries that lead to lower-extremity amputations[19].
  • Major cause of PAD is atherosclerosis but many conditions, including venous insufficiency, mimic symptoms of PAD -- these are called "pseudoclaudication"; see "differential diagnosis" below.

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Last updated: August 1, 2017


Gottlieb, Sheldon. "Peripheral Vascular Disease." Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide, 2017. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547119/all/Peripheral_Vascular_Disease.
Gottlieb S. Peripheral Vascular Disease. Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. 2017. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547119/all/Peripheral_Vascular_Disease. Accessed July 19, 2019.
Gottlieb, S. (2017). Peripheral Vascular Disease. In Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547119/all/Peripheral_Vascular_Disease
Gottlieb S. Peripheral Vascular Disease [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. ; 2017. [cited 2019 July 19]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547119/all/Peripheral_Vascular_Disease.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
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