Johns Hopkins Diabetes GuideComplications and ComorbiditiesFemale Disorders

Menopausal Effects on Glycemia

Swaytha Yalamanchi, M.D., Melissa Yates, M.D., Wanda Nicholson, M.D.
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DEFINITION

Menopause is defined retrospectively as the final menstrual period after 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea without other pathological or physiological causes.

  • Spontaneous or natural menopause: Occurs on average at age of 52 years, but varies widely from 40-58 years [4].
  • Induced menopause: Cessation of menstruation that occurs after either bilateral oophorectomy or iatrogenic ablation of ovarian function (ex: chemotherapy, pelvic radiation). Of note, surgical menopause begins the day that both ovaries are surgically removed in a previously menstruating patient.
  • Early menopause: Menopause occurring in women aged 40-45 years; occurs in ~5% of women
  • Premature menopause: Definitive cases of menopause before age 40, such as with surgical removal of both ovaries.
  • Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) +10 staging system subdivides changes in menstrual cycle and hormonal changes into late reproductive stage, early menopausal transition, late menopausal transition, early postmenopause, and late postmenopause.

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Last updated: January 30, 2017