Menopausal Effects on Glycemia
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Menopause is defined retrospectively as the final menstrual period after 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea without other pathological or physiological causes.
- Spontaneous or natural menopause: Occurs on average at age of 52 years, but varies widely from 40-58 years.
- Induced menopause: Cessation of menstruation that occurs after either bilateral oophorectomy or iatrogenic ablation of ovarian function (ex: chemotherapy, pelvic radiation). Of note, surgical menopause begins the day that both ovaries are surgically removed in a previously menstruating patient.
- Early menopause: Menopause occurring in women aged 40-45 years; occurs in ~5% of women
- Premature menopause: Definitive cases of menopause before age 40, such as with surgical removal of both ovaries.
- Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) +10 staging system subdivides changes in menstrual cycle and hormonal changes into late reproductive stage, early menopausal transition, late menopausal transition, early postmenopause, and late postmenopause.
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Last updated: January 30, 2017
Yalamanchi, Swaytha, et al. "Menopausal Effects On Glycemia." Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide, 2017. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547089/all/Menopausal_Effects_on_Glycemia.
Yalamanchi S, Yates M, Nicholson W. Menopausal Effects on Glycemia. Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. 2017. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547089/all/Menopausal_Effects_on_Glycemia. Accessed August 23, 2019.
Yalamanchi, S., Yates, M., & Nicholson, W. (2017). Menopausal Effects on Glycemia. In Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547089/all/Menopausal_Effects_on_Glycemia
Yalamanchi S, Yates M, Nicholson W. Menopausal Effects On Glycemia [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. ; 2017. [cited 2019 August 23]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547089/all/Menopausal_Effects_on_Glycemia.
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