Menopausal Effects on Glycemia

Swaytha Yalamanchi, M.D., Melissa Yates, M.D., Wanda Nicholson, M.D.


Menopause is defined retrospectively as the final menstrual period after 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea without other pathological or physiological causes.

  • Spontaneous or natural menopause: Occurs on average at age of 52 years, but varies widely from 40-58 years[4].
  • Induced menopause: Cessation of menstruation that occurs after either bilateral oophorectomy or iatrogenic ablation of ovarian function (ex: chemotherapy, pelvic radiation). Of note, surgical menopause begins the day that both ovaries are surgically removed in a previously menstruating patient.
  • Early menopause: Menopause occurring in women aged 40-45 years; occurs in ~5% of women
  • Premature menopause: Definitive cases of menopause before age 40, such as with surgical removal of both ovaries.
  • Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) +10 staging system subdivides changes in menstrual cycle and hormonal changes into late reproductive stage, early menopausal transition, late menopausal transition, early postmenopause, and late postmenopause.

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Last updated: January 30, 2017