Macular Edema

Sachin Kalyani, M.D.


  • The macula is a small and highly sensitive part of the retina, located roughly in the center of the retina and just temporal to the optic nerve.
  • Macular edema occurs due to fluid and protein leaking from blood vessels within the macula causing it to swell and thicken.
  • Focal macular edema is caused by foci of vascular abnormalities, primarily microaneurysms, which tend to leak fluid.
  • Diffuse macular edema is caused by dilated retinal capillaries in the retina.
  • Clinically significant macular edema (CSME) was defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Group (EDTRS)[6] (see Diagnosis section for full definition).

There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.

Last updated: July 7, 2020