Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Cancer and Diabetes

Hsin-Chieh Yeh, Ph.D.
Cancer and Diabetes is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:

Johns Hopkins Guides

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --


Incident Cancer:

  • Diabetes associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma[35] and cancer of breast,[42] colorectum,[49] endometrium,[41] liver[45], and pancreas[50].
  • Negatively associated with risk of prostate cancer[44].
  • Hypotheses about possible link between diabetes and cancer include:
    • Insulin is known to stimulate cell proliferation[27].
    • Hyperglycemia promotes tumor growth[55][36].
    • Shared risk factors such as obesity[51], diet, physical inactivity[51], hepatitis C[37], NAFLD[46].

Diabetes and cancer death

  • Diabetes associated with:
    • Increased risk of death from colon and pancreatic cancer in both men and women;
    • Increased risk of death from liver and bladder cancers in men; and
    • Increased risk of death from breast cancer in women[54]
  • Also reported positive associations with death from:
    • Esophagus, liver, and colon/rectum cancers in men, and
    • Liver and cervix cancers in women[52]

Diabetes in Cancer Patients

  • Meta-analyses showed diabetes associated with an increased mortality in patients with any cancer [HR of 1.44], cancers of the endometrium (HR, 1.76), breast (HR, 1.61), colorectum (HR, 1.32), and prostate[28][24].
  • Meta-analysis showed diabetes associated with increased odds of postoperative mortality across all cancer types [HR=1.5][28].
  • Hyperglycemia associated with shorter duration of complete remission in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia[53].
  • Hyperglycemia associated with shorter survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma[32].

Diabetes and Prostate Cancer

  • Negatively associated with risk of prostate cancer[44].
  • Androgen deprivation therapy causes changes in body composition, alterations in lipid profiles, and decreased insulin sensitivity[25].
  • Androgen deprivation therapy significantly increased risk for diabetes mellitus[33][1].

Obesity and Cancer

  • Relative risks from meta-analyses or pooled analyses range from 1.2 to 1.5 for overweight and 1.5 to 1.8 for obesity with respect to cancers of the colon[39], gastric cardia[11], liver[13], gallbladder[56], pancreas[21], and kidney[5]. The relative risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma is even higher, up to 4 fold in those who are extremely obese.
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that excess body weight increases risk for many types of cancer[2]: esophagus, colon, rectum, kidney, pancreas, uterus, ovary, post-menopausal breast, stomach cardia, liver, gallbladder, meningioma, thyroid, and multiple myeloma.
  • Patients with gastric bypass surgery had a lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality compared to severely obese patients[43][34].

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Last updated: March 3, 2019


Yeh, Hsin-Chieh. "Cancer and Diabetes." Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide, 2019. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547023/all/Cancer_and_Diabetes.
Yeh H. Cancer and Diabetes. Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. 2019. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547023/all/Cancer_and_Diabetes. Accessed May 20, 2019.
Yeh, H. (2019). Cancer and Diabetes. In Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547023/all/Cancer_and_Diabetes
Yeh H. Cancer and Diabetes [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. ; 2019. [cited 2019 May 20]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547023/all/Cancer_and_Diabetes.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Cancer and Diabetes ID - 547023 A1 - Yeh,Hsin-Chieh,Ph.D. Y1 - 2019/03/03/ BT - Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547023/all/Cancer_and_Diabetes DB - Johns Hopkins Guide DP - Unbound Medicine ER -