Cancer and Diabetes
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- Diabetes associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cancer of breast, colorectum, endometrium, liver, and pancreas.
- Negatively associated with risk of prostate cancer.
- Hypotheses about possible link between diabetes and cancer include:
Diabetes and cancer death
- Diabetes associated with:
- Also reported positive associations with death from:
- Esophagus, liver, and colon/rectum cancers in men, and
- Liver and cervix cancers in women
Diabetes in Cancer Patients
- Meta-analyses showed diabetes associated with an increased mortality in patients with any cancer [HR of 1.44], cancers of the endometrium (HR, 1.76), breast (HR, 1.61), colorectum (HR, 1.32), and prostate.
- Meta-analysis showed diabetes associated with increased odds of postoperative mortality across all cancer types [HR=1.5].
- Hyperglycemia associated with shorter duration of complete remission in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia.
- Hyperglycemia associated with shorter survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
Diabetes and Prostate Cancer
Obesity and Cancer
- Relative risks from meta-analyses or pooled analyses range from 1.2 to 1.5 for overweight and 1.5 to 1.8 for obesity with respect to cancers of the colon, gastric cardia, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidney. The relative risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma is even higher, up to 4 fold in those who are extremely obese.
- The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that excess body weight increases risk for many types of cancer: esophagus, colon, rectum, kidney, pancreas, uterus, ovary, post-menopausal breast, stomach cardia, liver, gallbladder, meningioma, thyroid, and multiple myeloma.
- Patients with gastric bypass surgery had a lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality compared to severely obese patients.