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- Bone mineral density (BMD) is a measure of mineral content for a given bone area or volume.
- Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture.
- Bone architecture consists of minerals (calcium, phosphorus) which form hydroxyapatite crystals, as well as type I collagen and other proteins.
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM): BMD lower than age-matched healthy population; at higher risk for fracture compared to age-matched population.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): BMD normal to higher than age-matched healthy population; may be at higher risk for fracture despite normal to high BMD.