Bone Disease is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:

Johns Hopkins Guides

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

DEFINITION

  • Osteoporosis and low bone density/osteopenia are the most important bone diseases observed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), characterized by decreased bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and increased susceptibility to fracture.
  • On bone density measurements via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): a T-score between +1.0 and -1.0 standard deviations (SD) is considered normal bone density, a score between -1.0 to -2.5 SD is low bone density/osteopenia, and a score equal to or below -2.5 SD is osteoporosis; Z-scores are used for men < 50 years and pre menopausal women.
  • Osteomalacia is softening of the bone resulting from impaired bone mineralization with calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus.
  • Charcot foot is a result of bone loss in the foot or ankle causing microfractures, ligament laxity and bony destruction, exacerbated by neuropathy and patient’s inability to perceive ongoing trauma.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Last updated: January 12, 2015