Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes
- 4 autoantibodies are markers of beta cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes: islet cell antibodies (ICA, against cytoplasmic proteins in the beta cell), antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-65), insulin autoantibodies (IAA), and IA-2A, to protein tyrosine phosphatase.
- Autoantibodies against GAD 65 are found in 80% of patients with type 1 diabetes at clinical presentation.
- Presence of ICA and IA-2A at diagnosis for type 1 diabetes range from 69-90% and 54-75%, respectively.
- IAA prevalence correlates inversely with age at onset of diabetes; it is usually the first marker in young children at risk for diabetes  and found in approximately 70% of young children at time of diagnosis.
- In the Diabetes Autoantibody Standardization Program 2000 workshop, the ELISA for the insulin autoantibody (IAA) assay ranged in sensitivity of 4-42%; the standardization of the insulin antibody assay continues to be more challenging than for GAD or IA-2A antibodies.
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Last updated: July 4, 2020
, Sudipa Sarkar, and Thomas Donner. "Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes." Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide, 2020. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547013/all/Autoantibodies_in_Type_1_Diabetes.
S, Donner T. Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes. Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. 2020. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547013/all/Autoantibodies_in_Type_1_Diabetes. Accessed June 7, 2023.
, S., & Donner, T. (2020). Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes. In Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547013/all/Autoantibodies_in_Type_1_Diabetes
S, Donner T. Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide. ; 2020. [cited 2023 June 07]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547013/all/Autoantibodies_in_Type_1_Diabetes.
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TY - ELEC T1 - Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes ID - 547013 A1 - ,Sudipa Sarkar,M.D. AU - Donner,Thomas,M.D. Y1 - 2020/07/04/ BT - Johns Hopkins Diabetes Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Diabetes_Guide/547013/all/Autoantibodies_in_Type_1_Diabetes DB - Johns Hopkins Guides DP - Unbound Medicine ER -