Johns Hopkins Diabetes GuideClinical TestsImmunology

Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes

Thomas Donner, M.D., Shivam Champaneri, M.D., Christopher Saudek, M.D.
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  • 4 autoantibodies are markers of beta cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes: Islet Cell Antibodies (ICA, against cytoplasmic proteins in the beta cell), antibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD-65), Insulin Autoantibodies (IAA), and IA-2A, to protein tyrosine phosphatase [2] .
  • Autoantibodies against GAD 65 are found in 80% of type 1 diabetics at clinical presentation [3] .
  • Presence of ICA and IA-2A at diagnosis for type 1 diabetes range from 69-90% and 54-75%, respectively [11] .
  • IAA prevalence correlates inversely with age at onset of diabetes; it is usually the first marker in young children at risk for diabetes [17] and found in approximately 70% of young children at time of diagnosis [1] .

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Last updated: October 6, 2015