Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Trichomonas vaginalis is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:

Johns Hopkins Guides

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --


  • Trichomonas vaginalis (TV): 5-15 µm, pear-shaped, motile, flagellated protozoan parasite.
    • Exists in the trophozoite stage only [Fig. 1; life cycle].
      • Facultative anaerobe, divides by binary fission.
      • Optimal growth in moist milieu at a pH of 4.9-7.5 and a temperature of 35oC-37oC.
    • Trichomonads gather in clusters on the stratified urogenital epithelium, covering only a small surface area.
      • Parasites invade superficial epithelium causing damage directly beneath the clustered trichomonads.
      • Non-specific inflammatory response noted in the lamina propria with plasma cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils present.
      • Superficial ulceration of the epithelium can occur.
    • A depressed level of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in cervicovaginal fluid, seen more often in females receiving hormonal contraceptives and those with vaginal pH >4.5, correlates with both T. vaginalis infection and poor reproductive outcomes in women
  • Transmission issues:
    • Can survive up to 45 minutes on clothing, washcloths, and in bath water.
    • Presence of infection enhances acquisition of HIV infection.
    • Antecedent bacterial vaginosis (BV), as defined by Nugent criteria, is a risk factor of T. vaginalis acquisition.
      • T. vaginalis is strongly associated with an INTERMEDIATE Nugent score (0-3 = Normal, 4-6 = Intermediate, >6 = BV)
      • T. vaginalis is strongly associated with an uncultivated member of the genus Mycoplasma which appears less pro-inflammatory than M. hominis.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Last updated: July 24, 2019


Hynes, Noreen A. "Trichomonas Vaginalis." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2019. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540562/7/Trichomonas_vaginalis.
Hynes NA. Trichomonas vaginalis. Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2019. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540562/7/Trichomonas_vaginalis. Accessed August 17, 2019.
Hynes, N. A. (2019). Trichomonas vaginalis. In Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540562/7/Trichomonas_vaginalis
Hynes NA. Trichomonas Vaginalis [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2019. [cited 2019 August 17]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540562/7/Trichomonas_vaginalis.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Trichomonas vaginalis ID - 540562 A1 - Hynes,Noreen,M.D., M.P.H., D.T.M.&H. Y1 - 2019/07/24/ BT - Johns Hopkins ABX Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540562/7/Trichomonas_vaginalis PB - The Johns Hopkins University DB - Johns Hopkins Guide DP - Unbound Medicine ER -