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Toxocara species and Baylisascaris

Toxocara species and Baylisascaris is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

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  • Toxocara spp.
    • Worldwide helminthic infection of humans, agent nematodes:
      • Toxocara canis (dog roundworm)
      • Toxocara cati (cat roundworm), less common
    • Humans infected as accidental hosts by ingesting eggs from contaminated soil [life cycle Fig. 1] by feces of infected dogs or cats.
      • Usually occurs in overcrowded, poor living conditions with dogs or cats.
        • Ingested eggs evolve to larval forms penetrating intestinal mucosa with subsequent spread to a variety of body organs (visceral larval migrans [VLM] and/or eyes, ocular larval migrans [OLM]) in arrested development, no ongoing production. Host inflammatory reactions produce symptoms as parasites die off.
        • Human infection does not yield egg production, hence inspection of stool O&P pointless.
  • Baylisascaris procyonis (raccoon roundworm, worldwide including the U.S.) has been reported to also cause VLM (mainly CNS forms, eosinophilic meningoencephalitis) and OLM.
  • Note: cutaneous larval migrans (CLM) is caused by a number of nematodes, most commonly hookworm (Ancylostoma braziliense)

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Last updated: August 9, 2019


Auwaerter, Paul. "Toxocara Species and Baylisascaris." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2019. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540557/all/Toxocara_species_and_Baylisascaris.
Auwaerter P. Toxocara species and Baylisascaris. Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2019. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540557/all/Toxocara_species_and_Baylisascaris. Accessed August 18, 2019.
Auwaerter, P. (2019). Toxocara species and Baylisascaris. In Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540557/all/Toxocara_species_and_Baylisascaris
Auwaerter P. Toxocara Species and Baylisascaris [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2019. [cited 2019 August 18]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540557/all/Toxocara_species_and_Baylisascaris.
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TY - ELEC T1 - Toxocara species and Baylisascaris ID - 540557 A1 - Auwaerter,Paul,M.D. Y1 - 2019/08/09/ BT - Johns Hopkins ABX Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540557/all/Toxocara_species_and_Baylisascaris PB - The Johns Hopkins University DB - Johns Hopkins Guide DP - Unbound Medicine ER -