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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

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MICROBIOLOGY

  • Gram-negative non-fermenting, motile bacillus [Fig 1]; known for blue-green pus due to pyocyanin and pyoverdin pigments.
  • Non-fastidious organism; it can inhabit a variety of environments including soil and water (hot tubs, sinks, water faucets, respirators, disinfectants, and contact lens cleaning solutions).
  • Grows on a wide variety of media. Clinical isolates usually render smooth colonies on plates [Fig 2].
  • Produces biofilm, toxins and proteases.
  • Drug resistance mechanisms include multiple pathways: chromosomal and inducible beta-lactamases, active efflux pumps, acquired genes and plasmid-mediated ESBLs (TEM, SHV, CTX-M), and altered permeability.[11]
    • Carbapenem resistance mechanisms include:
      • Loss of outer membrane porin D (OprD) results in resistance to carbapenems, specifically imipenem.[14]
      • The combined loss of OprD in combination with another mechanism, i.e., overexpression of AmpC beta-lactamase OR overexpression of efflux pumps, is a major determinant of resistance to carbapenems.[10]
      • Production of carbapenemases, esp. Ambler class B metallo-beta-lactamases (NDM, VIM, IMP).[3]
    • Clinical utility of rapid molecular diagnostic platforms to detect genotype resistance to beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations is limited by the complexity of nontested determinants of beta-lactam resistance, such as OprD changes and drug efflux systems.[6]

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Last updated: July 2, 2019

Citation

Spacek, Lisa A. "Pseudomonas Aeruginosa." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2019. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540457/1/Pseudomonas_aeruginosa.
Spacek LA. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2019. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540457/1/Pseudomonas_aeruginosa. Accessed July 20, 2019.
Spacek, L. A. (2019). Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540457/1/Pseudomonas_aeruginosa
Spacek LA. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2019. [cited 2019 July 20]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540457/1/Pseudomonas_aeruginosa.
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TY - ELEC T1 - Pseudomonas aeruginosa ID - 540457 A1 - Spacek,Lisa,M.D., Ph.D. Y1 - 2019/07/02/ BT - Johns Hopkins ABX Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540457/1/Pseudomonas_aeruginosa PB - The Johns Hopkins University DB - Johns Hopkins Guide DP - Unbound Medicine ER -