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- Gram-positive branching, beaded, filamentous rod.
- Weakly acid fast.
- Grows on special media (Thayer-Martin) in 3-5d.
- 12 species: N. asteroides 90% (lung +/- CNS disease), N. brasiliensis = mycetoma (tropics), N. farcinica (bad prognosis).
- More recently detected species include N. nova, N. cyriacigeorica, N. transvalensis, N. otitidcaviatum and N. farcinica.
- Most common in US: N. nova, N. brazilensis, N. farcinica and N. cyriaciigeorgia.