Enterobacter species

Enterobacter species is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:

Johns Hopkins Guides

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --


  • Gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family.
  • Opportunistic human pathogen includes: E. cloacae (most common), E. aerogenes, E. gergoviae[8] and Pantoea agglomerans.
    • E. sakazakii now classified as Cronobacter.
  • High levels of drug resistance often seen and due to:
    • (1) Chromosomal AmpC beta-lactamases that are constitutive and inducible[12]
      • β-lactams must be present for activation of inducible beta-lactamases, so initial susceptibility reports may not detect resistance that can arise during therapy.
    • (2) Plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)
    • (3) Carbapenemases[7]
  • Other resistance mechanisms
    • Alterations in active site of penicillin-binding protein
    • Defects in outer membrane permeability that reduce diffusion of beta-lactams into cell
    • Presence of efflux pumps that move beta-lactams out of cell

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Last updated: March 1, 2017