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Endocarditis is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

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PATHOGENS

  • Worldwide, staphylococci ( S aureus > ConS) most common cause, followed by streptococci (viridans group > S. bovis), then enterococci. Culture-negative endocarditis, ~10%.
  • Native valve infective endocarditis (IE):

Native Valve Endocarditis Pathogens (see individual pathogens)

Pathogen

Frequency

S. aureus

32%

Viridans streptococci

18%

Enterococcus

11%

Coagulase-negative staphylococcus

11%

Streptococcus bovis

7%

Streptococcus (other)

5%

HACEK organisms [Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter (formerlyHaemophilus aphrophilus), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,
Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingii]

2%

Gram-negative bacilli

2%

Fungi [Candida species, Aspergillus species (note: blood cultures rarely positive for aspergillus)]

2%

Culture negative [consider HACEK organisms, nutritionally deficient Streptococcus species (e.g., Abiotrophia), Coxiella burnetii (Q fever),
Chlamydia psittaci, Mycoplasma spp., Legionella pneumophila, Bartonella species, Brucella species, Tropheryma whipplei]

8%

  • Prosthetic valve: approximate percentile presentations [from Horstkotte, Eur Heart J 1995]

Pathogen

Early

Late

CoNS

28%

20%

S. aureus Horsk

19%

18%

Strep species

3%

16%

Enterococcus

6%

17%

HACEK

18%

7%

Fungi

9%

6%

Polymicrobial

6%

2%

Other

6%

6%

Culture-negative

3%

4%

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Last updated: February 20, 2019

Citation

Bartlett, John G. "Endocarditis." Johns Hopkins ABX Guide, The Johns Hopkins University, 2019. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540191/all/Endocarditis.
Bartlett JG. Endocarditis. Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2019. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540191/all/Endocarditis. Accessed March 22, 2019.
Bartlett, J. G. (2019). Endocarditis. In Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540191/all/Endocarditis
Bartlett JG. Endocarditis [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins ABX Guide. The Johns Hopkins University; 2019. [cited 2019 March 22]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540191/all/Endocarditis.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Endocarditis ID - 540191 A1 - Bartlett,John,M.D. Y1 - 2019/02/20/ BT - Johns Hopkins ABX Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540191/all/Endocarditis PB - The Johns Hopkins University DB - Johns Hopkins Guide DP - Unbound Medicine ER -