Cryptococcus is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide.

To view the entire topic, please or purchase a subscription.

Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:

Johns Hopkins Guides

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --


  • Yeast-like, round fungus; usual size is 5-10µm with polysaccharide capsule [Fig].
    • Reproduces by narrow-based budding.
  • Epidemiology: worldwide in soil, high levels in pigeon droppings (but this relevance is questionable for human disease).
  • Two species:
    • C. neoformans historically divided into 4 serotypes (A to D) described based upon the capsule components with 2 species and 2 varieties causing human disease. Now based on genotypic evaluation, proposed:
      • Serotype A: now known as C. neoformans v. grubii
      • Serotypes B and C: C. gattii
      • Serotype D: C. neoformans v. neoformans (most common) and worldwide in distribution
    • C. gattii: more recently detected and seen primarily in Australia, Western Canada and northwestern U.S. (Washington and Oregon).
      • Clinical presentation and diagnosis and treatment are the same as with C. neoformans.
      • Differences from C. neoformans include higher attack rates in healthy hosts, and worse prognosis.
      • Appears more resistant to fluconazole.
      • True extent of infection/epidemiology not known.

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or purchase a subscription --

Last updated: February 5, 2019