Official website of the Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX), HIV, Diabetes, and Psychiatry Guides, powered by Unbound Medicine. Johns Hopkins Guide App for iOS, iPhone, iPad, and Android included. Explore these free sample topics:
-- The first section of this topic is shown below --
- Clostridia produce the largest number of toxins of any bacterial class.
- The common source of entry in humans is the gastrointestinal tract or trauma.
- Obligate anaerobic bacteria with unusual features: spore formation, toxin production and normally reside in the environment or the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Dominant form in human intestinal flora.
- Belongs to phylum Firmicutes which is the dominant component of the fecal microbiome. Clostridia spp. account for 50% or about 1013/gm stool.
- Species specific toxin expression:
- Non toxigenic strains are often often component of mixed infections or bacteremia; pathogenic role often unclear.
Food intoxication, diarrhea, sudden infant death
Ted A + Ted B
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea + colitis
BoNT/A, B, E
Gangrene, Puerperal sepsis
BoNT/A + B
* Adapted from Popoff MR, Bouvel P; Future Microbio 2009; 4: 1021
TeNT - Tetanus toxin; BoNT - Botulinium neurotoxin; TcsH - C. sordellii hemorrhagic toxic; TcsL - C. sordellii lethal toxin; TcdA, alpha toxin; TedB - Beta toxin