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- Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, agent of Lyme disease (LD) in North America.
- Other strains may cause LD in regions outside the U.S., e.g. B. garinii, B. afzelii in Europe.
- These species may not trigger positive U.S. 2-tier Lyme serologic assays, but are better detected by Lyme C6 (Vlse) antibody testing.