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- Viral: enteroviruses (including Coxsackie, echo, Enterovirus 71), HSV (primarily Type 2), arboviruses (West Nile virus, others), LCMV, mumps, influenza, parainfluenza, measles, EBV, CMV, VZV, HHV-6, parvovirus B19, acute HIV infection, Ebola virus.
- Fungal: occasional causes if fungal culture not obtained, or lacks growth of organism.
- Parasitic: Toxoplasma gondi (more commonly encephalitic), Amoeba spp., T. solium
- Recurrent: often due to HSV (formerly called Mollaret’s meningitis)
- Non-infectious causes: carcinomatous (primary or metastatic, lymphoma or leukemia), drug-induced (e.g., TMP-SMX, INH, ibuprofen, allopurinol), CNS vasculitis, CNS sarcoidosis, Behçet’s syndrome, vaccines, benign lymphocytic meningitis, HANDL (headache w/ neurological deficits and lymphocytic pleocytosis), intravenous immunoglobulin, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, SLE, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Sjögren syndrome, Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease.
- The above lists are not entirely comprehensive.
- Annually diagnosed as reason for >36,000 hospitalizations. Most common reason: viral infections w/ enteroviruses as leading cause (55-90%), seen mostly in summer and fall.
- Member of picornavirus family, which is the second most common viral infection in humans after rhinovirus.
- More than 60 serotypes, including Polioviruses, Coxsackieviruses (23 Type A, 6 Type B strains), Echoviruses (28 strains), and newer numbered enteroviruses
- Infants infected > children > adults.
- Highly contagious, by fecal-oral spread (children) or respiratory (adult).
- Incubation 7-10d.
- Only 1/1000 infected develops meningitis.
- Viral shedding can persist for weeks after recovery from infection.
- Clinical: varies with pathogen and host age and immune status, but typically fever, headache (often more prominent than in bacterial meningitis), photophobia, nausea/vomiting, rash (depending on etiology), diarrhea, flu-like illness, meningeal signs and lethargy without obtundation.
- Review history of travel and exposures: rodents (LCMV, leptospirosis), ticks (Lyme, rickettsial), TB, sexual activity (HSV, acute HIV infection, syphilis), endemic/epidemic (West Nile virus), IDU (acute HIV, endocarditis).
- Other etiologies: drug-induced meningitis (NSAIDs, co-trimoxazole), parameningeal foci (epidural abscess, epidermoid cyst), and malignancy (lymphoma, carcinoma).
- Physical Examination: meningismus, cranial nerve palsies, rash (depending on cause), hand-foot-mouth disease (multiple oral ulcers and papulovesicular rash of palms and soles commonly seen with enterovirus), acute flaccid paralysis (WNV, polio), genital herpes (>1/3 of primary genital HSV-2 infections in women are accompanied by meningitis; 11% in men).
- CSF: 10 to < 1,000 WBC typical, mostly lymphocytes or monocytes (PMNs may be seen early in course)
- Elevated protein
- Glucose norma
- Negative culture and gram stain
- High CSF lactate (>35 mg/dL) suggests aseptic > bacterial meningitis.
- CSF: 10 to < 1,000 WBC typical, mostly lymphocytes or monocytes (PMNs may be seen early in course)
- CT or MRI should not show any acute brain pathology.
- Craniocervical and sinus imaging (MRI or CT) should be considered to rule out parameningeal focus.
- Dx studies should include: CSF - WBC, protein, glucose, VDRL, crypt Ag, standard cultures including C&S, fungal, AFB; PCRs for Enterovirus, HSV, VZV; Lyme serology (if in endemic region), RPR. Other tests per suspicions.
- Enterovirus CSF PCR superior to viral culture.
- Consider WNV serology/PCR or other arbovirus serologies (e.g., Western Equine encephalitis, Eastern Equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, etc).
- Appropriate studies depend on exposures/risks: HIV (viral load qualitative), Lyme serology, RPR, CSF VDRL.
- Suspect w/ CSF WBC < 500/ml with monocyte pleocytosis, protein < 80. Enteroviral PCR helpful, if (+) one can shorten abx administration, speed hospital discharge.
- Mean CSF lymphocyte percentage lower for enteroviral (~50%) than HSV-2 (~95%) or VZV (~98%) meningitis.
- Mean CSF protein lower for enteroviral (~60) than HSV-2 (~120) or VZV (~130) meningitis.
- Supportive care for most (hydration, electrolyte repletion, pain management).
- Observe for SIADH.
- Seizures are rare.
- Progressive downhill course argues against most purely viral meningitides (although viral meningoencephalitis can be severe).
- Enteroviral meningitis:
- Pleconaril appeared promising but drug was not FDA approved and no longer available for compassionate use.
- Given evidence of benefit from IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) if given early for severe EV 71 infection in Asia, now used routinely and part of treatment guidelines in Taiwan.
- Agammaglobulinemic pts with chronic enteroviral meningitis (rare): IVIG administer 350->400 mg/kg IV q3 weeks to maintain serum IgG >500-800 mg/dL +/- initial intrathecal therapy.
- HSV-2 meningitis: may treat for neurologic sx such as urinary retention or weakness; treatment is not necessary if only meningitis presentation without complication:
- Recurrent HSV-2 meningitis (formerly called Mollaret’s meningitis): prevention used by some, but controversial whether efficacious as little evidence supports these approaches.
- VZV meningitis: treat if compromised hosts and severe infection: acyclovir 15 mg/kg IV q8h x 10-14d.
- Acute HIV infection: consider ART (See Acute Retroviral Syndrome)
- Refer to specific pathogen or diagnosis module.
- Confusion may arise with partially treated bacterial meningitis: may need to conclude empiric therapy for bacterial meningitis or repeat LP in 12h off therapy.
Pathogen Specific Therapy
- For CNS presentations
Combinations of first- and second-line agents (consult an expert)
Human immunodeficiency virus
Antiretroviral therapy (see Acute Retroviral Syndrome)
IVIG used routinely for severe disease in Asia
Basis for recommendation
- Rotbart HA; Infections of the central nervous system (2nd ed), Scheld M, Whitley R, Durack D (Eds), Raven, New York.; Vol. 23;
Comment: Comprehensive review of evaluation and management of the patient with aseptic meningitis.
- Bergmann, Jean-François, et al. "Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department." Medicine, vol. 95, no. 2, 2016, pp. e2372. [PMID:26765411]
Comment: Review of 180 patient admitted to IM unit with aseptic meningitis, including 124 without encephalitis. Most with ID diagnosis due to enteroviruses (43%), HSV-2 (17%), and VZV (14%). Significant differences in CSF profiles between enteroviral meningitis and these herpes virus meningitides, including lower CSF protein and lymphocyte percentages.
- Fukuhara, Shunichi, et al. "Diagnostic Accuracy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate for Differentiating Bacterial Meningitis From Aseptic Meningitis: a Meta-analysis." The Journal of Infection, vol. 62, no. 4, 2011, pp. 255-62. [PMID:21382412]
Meta-analysis that mostly includes studies from 1970s and 1980s; it argues for use of CSF lactate to help distinguish aseptic from bacterial meningitis with 93% sensitivity, 96% specificity. Utility diminished (sensitivity 49%) if antibiotics administered before LP.
- Cardosa, Mary Jane, et al. "Clinical Features, Diagnosis, and Management of Enterovirus 71." Lancet Neurology, vol. 9, no. 11, 2010, pp. 1097-105. [PMID:20965438]
Epidemics of Enterovirus 71 infections have arisen in Asia over the past 10-15 years. Excellent review of the spectrum of clinical manifestations of EV 71 infections, including aseptic meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and brainstem encephalitis, as well as differential diagnostic considerations, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment modalities (admittedly largely limited to supportive care and consideration of IVIg).
- Aygun, Denizmen A., et al. "Distinguishing Between Bacterial and Aseptic Meningitis in Children: European Comparison of Two Clinical Decision Rules." Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 95, no. 12, 2010, pp. 963-7. [PMID:20660523]
Comment: Another study that seeks to help distinguish between life-threatening bacterial meningitis versus likely viral causes. This study examined 198 patients presenting with acute meningitis n six European centers. The clinical decision rules used were two: the Bacterial Meningitis Score [BMS--start antibiotics in case of seizure, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram staining, blood neutrophil count ≥10 ×10(9)/l, CSF protein level ≥80 mg/dl or CSF neutrophil count ≥1000 ×10(6)/l); and the Meningitest (start antibiotics in case of seizure, purpura, toxic appearance, PCT level ≥0.5 ng/ml, positive CSF Gram staining or CSF protein level ≥50 mg/dl). When compared, both were 100% senstivie but the BMS yielded better specificity (52% vs 36%, p< 0.00000001). Authors conclude that BMS is better when used cautiously in an alogrithm and avoid unnecessary antibiotics.
- Ginsberg, L, and D Kidd. "Chronic and Recurrent Meningitis." Practical Neurology, vol. 8, no. 6, 2008, pp. 348-61. [PMID:19015295]
Comment: Review article most useful for its differential diagnosis of chronic meningitis and the uveo-meningitis syndromes.
- Miralles, Carmen Peña, et al. "Characteristics of Meningitis Caused By Ibuprofen: Report of 2 Cases With Recurrent Episodes and Review of the Literature." Medicine, vol. 85, no. 4, 2006, pp. 214-20. [PMID:16862046]
Comment: Case report and review of the literature for one of the more common causes of drug-induced meningitis. Many of the patients noted in the literature with this syndrome also had pre-existing autoimmune disorders such as SLE.
- Hukkanen, V, et al. "Etiology of Aseptic Meningitis and Encephalitis in an Adult Population." Neurology, vol. 66, no. 1, 2006, pp. 75-80. [PMID:16401850]
Comment: Report from Finland finds that adult aseptic meningitis is mostly due to enteroviral infection and HSV-2.
- Ross, John J., and Michael G. Worthington. "Aseptic Meningitis and Acute HIV Syndrome After Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy: Implications for Structured Treatment Interruptions." AIDS (London, England), vol. 17, no. 14, 2003, pp. 2145-6. [PMID:14502028]
Comment: Besides an aseptic meningitis as a presentation of acute retroviral infection, authors detail a case wherein similar clinical scenarios developed after structured interruption of ART.
- Campbell, Grant L., et al. "Neurologic Manifestations and Outcome of West Nile Virus Infection." JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 4, 2003, pp. 511-5. [PMID:12876094]
Comment: Prospective study suggesting that besides encephalitic presentations, WNV well capable of causing an aseptic meningitis picture as 5/16 (31%) West Nile seropositive patients only developed meningitis but not encephalitis as a consequence of infection.
- McKinlay, M A., et al. "Treatment of Human Enterovirus Infections." Antiviral Research, vol. 38, no. 1, 1998, pp. 1-14. [PMID:9613999]
Comment: A summary of the evidence behind the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in severe or chronic CNS enteroviral infections. It also reviews the early clinical studies with pleconaril, which has now been shown in a multi-center randomized trial to reduce the duration of headache and hasten the return to school or work in patients with acute meningitis.
- Cañadillas, F, et al. "Pseudomigraine With Temporary Neurological Symptoms and Lymphocytic Pleocytosis. a Report of 50 Cases." Brain : a Journal of Neurology, vol. 120 ( Pt 7), 1997, pp. 1105-13. [PMID:9236623]
Comment: Describes series of patient with HANDL (Headache with neurological deficits and CSF lymphocytosis. Pts with severe headache, temporary neurological deficit and CSF pleocytosis (cells 16-350 wbc, predominantly lymphocytes) and elevated CSF protein that is self limiting. Most have more than one episode and there is often a strong migraine history.
- Alestig, K, and T Bergström. "Treatment of Primary and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Induced Meningitis With Acyclovir." Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 22, no. 2, 1990, pp. 239-40. [PMID:2162558]
Comment: Case series including one patient with acute and three patients with recurrent meningitis associated with recurrent genital lesions. Obviously a small sample size, but no further episodes were reported over 1-3 years of follow-up while taking acyclovir continuously or at the first sign of recurrent genital lesions.
- Billman, G, et al. "Impact of a Diagnostic Cerebrospinal Fluid Enterovirus Polymerase Chain Reaction Test On Patient Management." JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 283, no. 20, 2000 May 24-31, pp. 2680-5. [PMID:10819951]
Comment: Use of enterovirus PCR (typically 97-100% sensitive, 100% specific) in aseptic meningitis studied here prospectively with 137/276 (~50%)peds pts with positive studies. Those pts. all had fewer tests, abxs and discharged faster suggesting marked economic benefits of the test.
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