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- Protozoan hemoflagellate, agent of human African sleeping sickness.
- Zoonotic infection of cattle, transmitted by painful bite of TseTse fly ( Fig 1, not preventable with DEET) in rural African locales.
- Other modes of transmission possible: vertical (mother → child), sexual contact (rare), laboratory-related
- Trypanosoma brucei complex of which two subspecies exist:
- T. b. gambiense causes West African sleeping sickness
- T. b. rhodesiense causes East African sleeping sickness