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- Thin, branching (filamentous or beaded) Gram-positive bacillus [Fig 1].
- Microaerophilic, grow best anaerobically.
- VERY fastidious, often does not grow in culture.
- Agents: A. israelii, A. naeslundii, A. odontolyticus, A. viscosus, A. meyer and Propionibacterium propionicum and A. gereneseriae.
- Diagnosis is often made by histopathology -- not by culture, even when suspected.