MPOX (Monkeypox)


  • DNA virus and member of the orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, monkeypox is similar to smallpox (variola virus), smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus), and cowpox virus.
    • In November 2022, WHO renamed "monkeypox" to "MPOX," with some using lowercase "mpox," allowing for a one-year transition when both names would be recognized.
      • The idea was to reduce the stigma and discrimination associated with the "monkeypox" name and ensure that the infection is not associated much with non-human primates.
    • WHO is using roman numerals for MPXV variants.
      • The former Congo Basin (Central African) clade is now Clade I.
        • Has high reported human-to-human transmission rates and mortality (up to 10%).
      • The former West African clade is Clade II.
        • Clade IIa
          • It causes a mild illness with limited human-to-human transmission and low mortality (~1-3%).
        • Clade IIb refers to variants circulating in the 2022 global outbreak.
  • Although named monkeypox, the animal reservoir is believed to be African rodents but has not been fully defined.

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Last updated: July 16, 2023