Lisa A. Spacek, M.D., Ph.D.


  • Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan.
  • Environmental exposure to oocysts in cat feces or food exposure, i.e., undercooked meat containing tissue cysts or contaminated raw shellfish, leads to infection.[12]
  • Infection lifelong; disease most often due to reactivation of latent tissue cysts. Acute toxoplasmosis, encephalitis or disseminated disease, less often identified.[5]
  • No person-to–person transmission.

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Last updated: January 13, 2021