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Hepatitis A is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide.

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  • Hepatitis A virus (HAV): non-enveloped, icosahedral, positive-stranded RNA virus
  • Spread via fecal-oral route; more prevalent in low and middle-income countries (20-30% of people in U.S. are seropositive).
  • Transmission through contaminated food and water (including furits and packaged foods imported into the US) and through some sexual practices (oral-anal & digital-anal sex); multiple sexual partners and MSM are risks.
  • Pathogenesis from robust HAV-specific CD8+ T-cell, NK T-cell, and IFN response leading to hepatocyte destruction.

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Last updated: July 31, 2016


Hoffmann, Christopher J. "Hepatitis A." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2016. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545088/all/Hepatitis_A.
Hoffmann CJ. Hepatitis A. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. 2016. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545088/all/Hepatitis_A. Accessed August 18, 2019.
Hoffmann, C. J. (2016). Hepatitis A. In Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545088/all/Hepatitis_A
Hoffmann CJ. Hepatitis A [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ; 2016. [cited 2019 August 18]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545088/all/Hepatitis_A.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
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