- Member of Betaherpesviridae, double-stranded DNA virus with envelope; viral DNA polymerase is target for antivirals. Histology reveals large basophilic intranuclear ’owl’s eye’ and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies.
- Transmission via saliva, blood, semen, cervical secretions, breast milk, urine, or feces.
- Latency established after infection. 60-100% seroprevalence. As high as 90-100% seroprevalence in people living with HIV. High-frequency of CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells circulating in blood.
- Reactivation of latent infection increases with advancing immune suppression and is responsible for most HIV-related disease.
- Persistent immune activation and chronic inflammation due to HIV may be modified by CMV infection.
- Recent studies detail contribution of CMV to immune activation and non-AIDS-defining events, such as malignancy, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, nonvascular neurologic diseases, and ESRD.
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Last updated: March 5, 2022
Spacek, Lisa A. "Cytomegalovirus." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2022. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545048/all/Cytomegalovirus.
Spacek LA. Cytomegalovirus. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. 2022. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545048/all/Cytomegalovirus. Accessed June 10, 2023.
Spacek, L. A. (2022). Cytomegalovirus. In Johns Hopkins HIV Guide https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545048/all/Cytomegalovirus
Spacek LA. Cytomegalovirus [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ; 2022. [cited 2023 June 10]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545048/all/Cytomegalovirus.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
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