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Cyclospora cayetanensis

Cyclospora cayetanensis is a topic covered in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide.

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  • Obligate intracellular coccidian parasite; infects epithelial cells of small intestine. Destroys brush border and alters mucosal architecture.[4]
  • Excreted in stool as oocysts (spherical, 8-10 μm in diameter), which may be shed intermittantly and at low levels. Sporulation (maturation of oocysts) occurs outside host and takes 7-12d.
  • Transmitted by fecal-contaminated soil, food and water. Humans only known host and reservoir. Human-to-human transmission unlikely as excreted oocysts must sporulate before becoming infectious.
  • Both sporadic infections and outbreaks occur. Frequency peaks during spring & summer in the U.S., associated with fruits and vegetables, i.e., raspberries, mixed salad greens, cilantro, and basil.[5]
    • 2018 outbreak season comprised 2 multistate outbreaks and 761 laboratory-confirmed cases.[6]
  • Lack of validated molecular typing tool limits outbreak investigations.[6]
  • Endemic areas, i.e., Peru, Nepal, Haiti, Guatemala, Indonesia. Low-level endemicity in US cannot be excluded.

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Last updated: July 1, 2019


Spacek, Lisa. "Cyclospora Cayetanensis." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2019. Johns Hopkins Guide, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545047/all/Cyclospora_cayetanensis.
Spacek L. Cyclospora cayetanensis. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. 2019. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545047/all/Cyclospora_cayetanensis. Accessed July 21, 2019.
Spacek, L. (2019). Cyclospora cayetanensis. In Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. Available from https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545047/all/Cyclospora_cayetanensis
Spacek L. Cyclospora Cayetanensis [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ; 2019. [cited 2019 July 21]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545047/all/Cyclospora_cayetanensis.
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TY - ELEC T1 - Cyclospora cayetanensis ID - 545047 A1 - Spacek,Lisa,M.D., Ph.D. Y1 - 2019/07/01/ BT - Johns Hopkins HIV Guide UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545047/all/Cyclospora_cayetanensis DB - Johns Hopkins Guide DP - Unbound Medicine ER -