- Spore-forming, anaerobic, Gram-positive rod.
- Produces toxins A and B, which bind to specific receptors in colon. Toxins attack Rho proteins, disrupting actin formation and causing cell death.
- Studies show that toxin B, not toxin A, is essential for virulence.
- Spores contaminate hands and hospital environment. Alcohol and other antiseptic hand rubs may be ineffective in killing spores. Hand-washing physically removes spores.
- A hypervirulent strain (NAP1/B1/027) produces higher levels of toxins A and B and is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance, more severe disease, and higher mortality.
There's more to see -- the rest of this topic is available only to subscribers.
Last updated: October 19, 2022
McKenzie, Robin. "Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) Difficile." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2022. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545039/all/Clostridioides__previously_Clostridium__difficile.
McKenzie R. Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. 2022. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545039/all/Clostridioides__previously_Clostridium__difficile. Accessed December 8, 2023.
McKenzie, R. (2022). Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile. In Johns Hopkins HIV Guide https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545039/all/Clostridioides__previously_Clostridium__difficile
McKenzie R. Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) Difficile [Internet]. In: Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ; 2022. [cited 2023 December 08]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545039/all/Clostridioides__previously_Clostridium__difficile.
TY - ELEC
T1 - Clostridioides (previously Clostridium) difficile
ID - 545039
A1 - McKenzie,Robin,M.D.
Y1 - 2022/10/19/
BT - Johns Hopkins HIV Guide
UR - https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545039/all/Clostridioides__previously_Clostridium__difficile
DB - Johns Hopkins Guides
DP - Unbound Medicine