Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin Treatment

Alona Crowder, Pharm.D., Elias K. Spanakis, M.D., Sherita Golden, M.D., M.H.S.


  • Insulin is the oldest and most effective therapy for treating hyperglycemia.
  • Insulin can decrease the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to any level, and there is no maximum dose of insulin beyond which glucose cannot be lowered.
  • Modern insulins are manufactured by yeast or bacteria, using recombinant DNA techniques.
  • Amino acid sequences of insulin are either identical to that of human insulin, or are modified to have altered pharmacokinetic properties (analogs).

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Last updated: March 3, 2019